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Perichondrium of ear

Perichondritis of the ear can be a diffuse inflammatory, but not necessarily infectious, process resulting in diffuse swelling, redness, and pain of the pinna, or an abscess between the cartilage and the perichondrium The perichondrium is a dense layer of connective tissue that covers the external surface of most of the body's cartilage (a strong, flexible, and semi-rigid tissue found throughout the body). Perichondrium is mainly found on the surfaces of elastic and hyaline cartilage, which can be found in multiple locations of the body, such as in the ears , nose, joints and ribs

Perichondritis of the Ear - Ear, Nose, and Throat

  1. The perichondrium is dense connective tissue that covers the cartilage in various parts of your body, such as your ears, nose, larynx, and trachea
  2. The perichondrium is found throughout the body but it is mostly concentrated in parts like the ears or the nose that protrude out. The perichondrium covers hyaline cartilage found in the trachea of the throat, the larynx or voice box, the epiglottis, the region where ribs connect to the sternum and between vertebrae of the spine
  3. Perichondritis is an infection of the skin and tissue surrounding the cartilage of the outer ear (pinna). Cartilage is the stiff but flexible material that gives your ear its shape. All cartilage has a thin layer of tissue around it called the perichondrium. This covering helps provide nutrients to the cartilage
  4. Ear piercing through the cartilage is probably the major risk factor today. Surgery, burns, and acupuncture also increase the risk for infection. Perichondritis can lead to chondritis, which is an infection of the cartilage itself. This can cause severe damage to the ear structure
  5. ous glands that extend through the dermis to reach the perichondrium of the cartilagenous part of the tube.The hairs may aid in preventing intrusion of insects into the ear canal, and the waxy secretion of the ceru
  6. Perichondritis of the external ear Definition : refers to inflammation involving the perichondrium of the external ear, auricle, &external auditory canal. However, it is commonly used to descr

An auricular hematoma is a collection of blood underneath the perichondrium of the ear that typically occurs secondary to trauma. Common mechanisms of injury include an ear-piercing gone wrong or blunt trauma in contact sports (wrestling, boxing, and martial arts) Perichondritis is inflammation of the perichondrium, a layer of connective tissue which surrounds cartilage. A common form, auricular perichondritis (perichondritis auriculae) involves infection of the pinna due to infection of traumatic or surgical wound or the spread of inflammation into depth (eg. Infected transcartilaginous ear piercings) Perichondritis of the ear can be a diffuse inflammatory, but not necessarily infectious, process resulting in diffuse swelling, redness, and pain of the pinna, or an abscess between the cartilage and the perichondrium. Causes of perichondritis includ Perichondritis of the external ear Definition : refers to inflammation involving the perichondrium of the external ear, auricle, &external auditory canal

Perichondrium: What Is It, Location, Function, Most

The perichondrium helps protect the ears from injury and trauma. An injury commonly known as cauliflower ear is a good example. Cauliflower ear happens when a person, commonly a boxer, wrestler, or other grappling athlete, sustains a hard blow to the ear Perichondritis of the Outer Ear Auricular perichondritis is inflammation of the skin and tissues that surround the cartilage of the outer ear (auricle). Perichondritis is typically caused by an injury to the ear, with the most significant risk factor being piercing of the ear cartilage. Other causes of injury include ear surgery, contact sports, burns, [

An injury that separates the perichondrium from the ear cartilage is known as cauliflower ear. Wrestlers, fighters and rugby players are most susceptible to this type of injury. A blow to the ear can allow a blood clot or other fluid to collect between the cartilage and the perichondrium, depriving the cartilage of necessary nutrients Perichondrium. The perichondrium (from Greek περί, peri, 'around' and χόνδρος, chondros, 'cartilage') is a layer of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the cartilage of developing bone. It consists of two separate layers: an outer fibrous layer and inner chondrogenic layer

- Perichondrium The framework for the auricle consists of a single, irregularly shaped, elastic cartilage. The trichrome stain used on this section highlights the elastic fibers in the cartilage. A prominent perichondrium surrounds the cartilage Perichondrium [from Greek peri = around; chondros = cartilage] is a membrane made of connective tissue that covers cartilage The first symptoms are redness, pain, and swelling of the auricle. The person may have a fever. Pus accumulates between the cartilage and the layer of connective tissue around it (perichondrium). Sometimes the pus cuts off the blood supply to the cartilage, destroying it and leading eventually to a deformed ear (called cauliflower ear) Absorbable gelatin sponge (Gelfoam) is packed in the middle ear space underneath the anterior annulus to support the graft in this area, and the posterior flap of perichondrium is draped over the posterior canal wall. Middle ear packing is avoided on the promontory and in the vicinity of the ossicular chain Reconstruction of the ear after skin and perichondrium loss. Elsahy NI. Because no two auricular defects are exactly the same, the choice of a suitable method for ear reconstruction is essential. Location and size of the defect influence the choice of technique needed for reconstruction

Perichondrium Anatomy and Function - Healthlin

Perichondrium - Location, Function and Picture

Perichondritis causes, symptoms, treatment & prognosi

The ear is composed of Cartilage: avascular. Derives its blood supply from overlying perichondrium / skin. Separation of cartilage from the perichondrium will result in avascular necrosis of the cartilage Perichondrium Skin: thin layer, tightly adherent to the perichondrium Auricular hematoma - due to blunt traum Perichondrium Elastic cartilage and its surrounding perichondrium form the cartilagenous, flexible framework in the pinna of the external ear. Elastic cartilage also forms the framework for the epiglottis and several of the smaller laryngeal cartilages. 10 Perichondrium is a thin tissue which supplies essential oxygen & nutrients to the principal ear cartilage, In young organisms the perichondrium is converted to periosteum in the process of the development of bone from cartilage Two hundred and fifty‐five ear operations using tragal perichondrium and cartilage for reconstruction are presented. Of these, 108 were myringoplasties, 137 were tympanoplasties with ossicular reconstruction performed by nine different methods, and 10 were tympanoplasties with reconstruction of posterior canal wall defects left by radical mastoid surgery

Video: Perichondritis: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedi

Ear Lacerations. Repairing ear lacerations is all about effectively managing lacerations that involve the cartilage. The pinna, or external part of the ear, is covered in thin skin which is tightly adherent to the underlying perichondrium (see Figure 1) The lobule, or ear lobe, is composed of fibroadipose tissue and lacks cartilage. The skin overlying the cartilaginous auricle, or pinna, is thin, without significant subcutaneous adipose tissue, and is densely adherent to the underlying perichondrium. The perichondrium, in turn, supplies nutrients to the auricular cartilage In 12 ears of 12 rabbits, the layer between the perichondrium and the cartilage was stripped off. The exposed cartilage was punched out in large amounts to resemble a flexible, honeycomb-like structure. Then, we sandwiched the rabbit ears with two thermoplastic plates, which maintained a structure of the anterior surface of the human ear for 8.

Ear histology - SlideShar

The author used fascia or perichondrium to repair 89 TM defects, and 63 ears were available for follow-up: 54 had cholesteatomas and 9 had perforations. Graft atrophy was judged by microscopic otoscopy and Kodachrome otophotography. Fascia TM grafts atrophied in 35 of 43 ears (80%), and perichondrium atrophied in 8 of 20 ears (40%) Tragal perichondrium cartilage composite graft in left ear after reposition of tympanomeatal flap. b.Tragal perichondrium graft in left ear after reposition of tympanomeatal flap. Audiology. Pure tone audiometry was done preoperatively and compared to audiogram taken in 6 th postoperative month. Pure tone average was calculated using. Reconstruction of human elastic cartilage by a CD44+ CD90+ stem cell in the ear perichondrium Shinji Kobayashia,b,1, Takanori Takebea,1, Midori Inuia, Sayaka Iwaia, Hiroomi Kana, Yun-Wen Zhenga, Jiro Maegawac, and Hideki Taniguchia,d,2 Departments of aRegenerative Medicine and cPlastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama Ear cartilage pain can also be caused by Perichondritis which is a condition that affects the soft tissue surrounding the ear cartilage known as Perichondrium. This condition is characterized by the eventual inflammation and pain of the ear cartilage if not addressed early enough Refers to inflammation involving the perichondrium of the external ear, auricle, &external auditory canal. However, it is commonly used to.

Perichondritis of the external ear Dr

  1. Removal of cartilage and/or the perichondrium during excision of malignant melanoma of the ear remains controversial. In a small series of 12 patients, Sartore et al. 23 found that no patients had.
  2. Autotransplantation of Monkey Ear Perichondrium-Derived Progenitor Cells for Cartilage Reconstructio
  3. Blunt trauma to ear shearing forces to the anterior auricle lead to separation of the anterior auricle perichondrium from the underlying cartilage. May result in thickening of cartilage (cauliflower ear) if not treated promptly! Evacuate blood and cephalexin
  4. Auricular perichondrium is the carpet of the ear. This carpet can be used to soften the use of grafts and make them much less visible. Why is perichondrium so important? Perichondrium offers the surgeon a permanent solution to graft and tip camouflage. In thin skinned patients, the risk of shink wrapping is a very real phenomenon

The perichondrium was dissected from the region of the tragal cartilage furthest from the ear canal, retaining the thin perichondrium of the underside. A chondroperichondrial island flap was constructed. Cartilage was removed using a round knife to produce an eccentric disc about 7 to 9 mm in diameter, which was used fo Cauliflower ear. The external ear, or auricle, is a delicate structure composed mostly of cartilage which provides the shape of the ear, perichondrium which provides the blood supply to the cartilage, and skin. The perichondrium is located between the cartilage and the skin. The softer lower part of the earlobe where earrings are.

Auricular Hematoma Management - REBEL EM - Emergency

Interestingly, the ratio of CD44 + CD90 + cells in the perichondrium was initially amplified up to 18.02 ± 7.06% at 1 mo and then diminished to 0.62 ± 0.05% at 10 mo, the same as observed in primary auricular cartilage remnants ( Fig. 4 C ). CD44 or CD90 single positive cells also experienced the same distributional change ( Fig. 4 D ) Right ear lobe biopsy was done and showed a mixed inflammatory infiltrate of the perichondrium composed of plasma cells, lymphocytes, histiocytes and neutrophils, and loss of the cartilage basophilia When the graft is cartilage perichondrium, it is placed over the gel foam with the perichondrial side facing medially. Tympanomeatal flap is repositioned over it. A cortical mastoidectomy is done in cases with a sclerotic mastoid and aditus patency is ensured. It facilitates aeration of middle ear and aids in the proper healing of graft Adequate treatment of melanomas of the external ear offers unique surgical challenges because of the complex anatomical features of the auricle and the need for proper oncologic aggressiveness, as well as for valid aesthetic results. In this study, we evaluated nine different cases of melanoma of the auricle treated in our Institute between 1994 and 2008 What is cauliflower ear? Also known as a perichondral hematoma, cauliflower ear is an irreversible deformity caused by the formation of scar tissue and contraction of the perichondrium which occurs after a separation of the ear cartilage from the underlying connective tissue.. The pinna is the outer part of the ear that acts as a funnel to direct sound further into the ear and is made up of.

Perichondritis - Wikipedi

The non-perichondrium group showed the development of the mesenchymal cells around the cartilage edge. Takato et al. confirmed the excellent chondrogenic potential of ear and rib perichondrium, whether vascularized or not . Another study demonstrated the high chondrogenic potential of ear cartilage . The growth of the new cartilage cells was. Two hundred and fifty-five ear operations using tragal perichondrium and cartilage for reconstruction are presented. Of these, 108 were myringoplasties, 137 were tympanoplasties with ossicular reconstruction performed by nine different methods, and 10 were tympanoplasties with reconstruction of posterior canal wall defects left by radical mastoid surgery. The method presented in this study of.

Cauliflower ear is an irreversible condition that occurs when the external portion of the ear is hit and develops a blood clot or other collection of fluid under the perichondrium. Cauliflower ear-Wikipedi Cryosurgery to remove perichondrium for the rabbit ear hypertrophic scar model: a simplified method. Link/Page Citation Introduction The rabbit ear hypertrophic scar model (REHSM) is one of the most advanced animal models of excessive scarring because it provides reproducible scars similar to human scarring with regard to their macroscopic and. The patients were divided into two surgical groups. Thirty ears were grafted with a ring-shaped modified cartilage-perichondrium graft, while the other 30 ears were grafted with a cartilage-perichondrium composite plate fashioned in the shape of the Mercedes-Benz symbol. The choice between ring or 'Mercedes-Benz' technique was made at random Abstract . Background: Myringoplasty is a surgical procedure aimed at the repair of a perforation in the tympanic membrane with intact and mobile ossicular chain. Described for the first time by Berthold in 1878, since its inception, different tissues have been introduced as grafts: fat of the ear lobe and tragal perichondrium

To compare surgical results of endoscopic myringoplasty using double layer cartilage-perichondrium grafts versus single fascia grafts. Prospective, randomized, controlled. University-affiliated teaching hospital. In total,134 patients who underwent endoscopic myringoplasty were included in this study. Patients in group A received a double layer tragal cartilage-perichondrium graft and those in. All cartilage has a thin layer of tissue around it called the perichondrium. This covering helps provide nutrients to the cartilage. The most common type of bacteria that causes perichondritis infection is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Perichondritis is usually caused by an injury to the ear due to: Ear surger The perichondrium is the skin and the tissue around the cartilage (thick tissue that shapes the nose and outer ear). In simple terms, perichondritis is an infection of the perichondrium. This infection is generally caused by bacteria. Some factors that increase the risk of perichondritis include injury to the ear, piercings or contact sports

Perichondritis of the external ear - SlideShar

  1. perichondrium during endochondral ossification occurred at a different rate than did degradation of vertebral cartilage perichondrium. Addition- from the malleus of the middle ear and the lingula of the mandible is transformed into the sphenomandibular ligament (Rodrıguez-Vazquez et al., 1992; Sperber et al.
  2. The perichondrium generally is left attached to the side of the cartilage that faces the ear canal, regardless of which technique is used. It is believed that the perichondrium improves graft stability and facilitates ingrowth of fibrous tissue and epithelialization
  3. Pinna cellulitis can occur as a complication of acute otitis externa, a complication of eczema or psoriasis, or from an insect bite. Pinna perichondritis is usually a result of penetrating trauma, including ear piercing. Left untreated, an abscess may form, lifting the perichondrial layer off the cartilage and resulting in necrosis and a.
  4. Clinical Relevance: Auricular Haematoma. An auricular haematoma refers to a collection of blood between the cartilage of the ear and the overlying perichondrium.It is usually occurs as a result of trauma, commonly seen in contact sports (e.g. rugby). The accumulation of blood can disrupt the blood supply to the cartilage, and requires prompt drainage
Ear Reconstruction and Salvage Procedures Treatment

Basal cell carcinoma in particular may spread laterally at the level of the perichondrium (the covering of the cartilage) beyond the visual tumour limits although this deep lateral spread rarely exceeds 5-6mm. When perichondrium is involved the underlying cartilage must be excised. treatment of ear cancers and tumour Ear splint: An ear cast is probably the best way of describing this method. Quilting suture: An absorbable suture is performed back and forth completely through one side of the ear to the other side (like a quilt blanket). The sutures keep the skin and perichondrium in approximation to the cartilage Trauma to the ear can cause the auricular perichondrium to separate from the underlying cartilage. The pinna is very vascular, and hence a haematoma will quickly develop. If this is not drained promptly and subsequent compression applied, the haematoma can cause ischaemia resulting in avasular necrosis of auricular cartilage Hyaline Cartilage. This is the most common form of cartilage in the body and also the weakest type. It is mostly made up of collagen (type II) with relatively few elastic fibres and is surrounded by a perichondrium. Hyaline is a precursor for bone and so is found in the epiphyseal growth plates of children Ear is made up of cartilage which gives the firm shape to it and is covered by a layer of tissue called perichondrium. Cartilage does not have blood supply and it receives oxygen and nutrients from blood vessels supplying the overlying skin and the perichondrium

What is Ear Cartilage? (with pictures)

Auricular hematoma occurs when blunt shearing force is sustained to the ear, often times in cases of facial trauma or in sports like boxing, wrestling, and mixed martial arts. These forces separate the underlying perichondrium from the cartilage itself The cartilaginous otic capsule and its perichondrium The petrous portion of the temporal bone with its contained otic capsule is one of the cartilage bones. It differs from other bones in that it is neither a long bone nor a flat bone but rather a capsular or box-like bone enclosing the internal ear Perichondritis is an ear health problem where the perichondrium (a layer of connective tissue), becomes damaged. A common cause of the condition is an infection in the pinna which happens after a trauma or surgery

(1979). The Cartilaginous Potential of the Perichondrium in Rabbit Ear and Rib. Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery: Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 275-280 Other articles where Perichondrium is discussed: connective tissue: Cartilage: inner chondrogenic layer of the perichondrium. In addition, the young chondrocytes retain the capacity to divide even after they become isolated in lacunae within the matrix. The daughter cells of these divisions secrete new matrix between them and move apart in separate lacunae Preauricular cysts, pits (as shown below), fissures, and sinuses are benign congenital malformations of the preauricular soft tissues first described by Van Heusinger in 1864. Preauricular pits or fissures are located near the front of the ear and mark the entrance to a sinus tract that may travel under the skin near the ear cartilage Identification of cartilage progenitor cells in the adult ear perichondrium: utilization for cartilage reconstructio Medical Definition of Perichondrium Medical Editor: Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD Perichondrium: A dense membrane that is composed of fibrous connective tissue that closely wraps all cartilage except the cartilage in joints, which is covered by a synovial membrane

What is the Perichondrium? (with pictures

perichondrium myringoplasty gives better results. A study was conducted by John L Dorn hoffer, the hearing results using tragal perichondrium grafts, out of 22 patients who underwent surgery, the graft was taken up in all the patients and average air bone gap was 6.8db in the post operativ nal ear is composed of fibroelastic carti-lage covered by perichondrium. The skin is adherent to the perichondrium anteriorly. Posteriorly the skin is less adherent due to a loose layer of areolar connective tissue above the perichondrium. The lobule does not contain cartilage and is composed of thicker skin and connective tissue

In this patient a fluid filled cyst filled the external auditory canal. The cyst originated in the mastoid and extended under the ear canal skin via a bony fistula in the mastoid cortex.. Click on Pictures to Enlarge Ear Canal Fracture: This is a picture of a patient's ear canal that was collapsed and fractured when his jaw was forced backward when it was injured in a motor vehicle accident perichondrium and tragal perichondrium with cartilage were used [3]. It is the work of two Germans, Wullstein and Zollner, which started in 1949, lead to a new concept of the treatment of deafness secondary to chronic infection in the middle ear and mastoid and the new method was called ―tympanoplasty‖ [4] Does leaving the ear perichondrium in diced ear cartilage help with blood supply, vascalarity and therefore better survival of the graft in the long term? If so, is one side or both sides of the perichindrium left on? Also, if ear is able to regenerate and grow would diced ear grow outside the graft shape like a potato would grow roots? Ear cartilage is completely dependent on the overlying skin for survival and has unique risks for infection. Perichondritis is a feared complication that is sometimes resistant to treatment and can result in disfiguring complications. This video allows us to review the basic principles of ear cartilage laceration repair

Perichondritis of the Outer Ear Center for Neuroscience

The perichondrium is a thin layer of tissue that surrounds the cartilage on the outer part of the ear. It is important because it provides the cartilage with its necessary blood supply and nutrients. Injury to the perichondrium also damages the perichondrial blood vessels, resulting in blood filling the space between the perichondrium and the. The neocartilage that regenerated from the ear perichondrium in 18 growing rabbits was shaped using biodegradable implants. The animals were divided into two groups according to the operation used. In group 1 a self-reinforced polyglycolic acid (SR-PGA) rod was placed inside a perichondrial pocket on the dorsum of the ear and surrounded by blood clot, and in group 2 a flap of ear perichondrium. The perichondrium (from Greek περί (peri 'around') and χόνδρος (chondros 'cartilage')) is a layer of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the cartilage of developing bone. Other examples include periosteum and perichondrium of bones, and the tunica albuginea of testis

What is Ear Cartilage? (with pictures

  1. Swelling in the outer ear does not necessarily mean you have swimmer's ear. The outer, fleshy part that surrounds the canal consists of thick, flexible cartilage with a covering known as the perichondrium. When an infection sets into the perichondrium, there will be significant swelling that may nothing to do with an ear infection
  2. Cartilage recieves its nutrients from the adherent perichondrium. ⚠️ Auricular Hematoma occurs when trauma causes blood to accumulate between perichondrium & cartilage, creating a barrier to the perichondrial blood supply. Early drainage of the hematoma is essential to restore perfusion and prevent cauliflower ear
  3. ed after six weeks

Perichondrium - Wikipedi

  1. The ear canal was packed with gelfoam moistened in antibiotic solution. A standard ear dressing was applied. 2-Perichondrium tympanoplasty: The Perichondrium is harvested from the tragus or concha of the auricle. From the tragus, a skin incision was made just medial to its summit, on its posterior surface. The skin an
  2. The value of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The temporal fascia was used as the graft material in 160 patients, and tragal perichondrium was used in 83 patients. Improvement of audiological outcome in patients with temporal fascia amounted 62.5% and in patients with perichondrium amounted 60.24%
  3. Tragal cartilage with perichondrium was used in all cases. It was harvested through a skin incision on the medial side of the tragus. The lateral 2-mm portion of the tragal cartilage was left intact in the dome of the tra-gus for cosmetic appearance. The cartilage with attached perichondrium was dissected medially from the overly
  4. Ear melanoma: Influence of perichondrium involvement in evaluating surgical strategy. L. Sartore, G. Giatsidis, F. Reho, G. Tanzillo, L. Campana, R. Salmaso Adequate treatment of melanomas of the external ear offers unique surgical challenges because of the complex anatomical features of the auricle and the need for proper oncologic.
  5. cauliflower ear Sports medicine An external ear-pinnae deformity caused by inadequate treatment- through-and-through stitches-of an otohematoma, with interruption of contact between the perichondrium and the underlying cartilage, resulting in a thickened ear Etiology Contact sports-wrestling, boxing-related trauma in adolescents, or falls in the elderly and children, the natural.
  6. Another special feature of cartilage is the absence of blood vessels in the main mass of the tissue (cartilage is avascular). Hyaline and elastic cartilage is covered by a fibrous layer called perichondrium (= around cartilage). In hyaline and elastic cartilage the perichondrium carries the blood vessels of the cartilage
  7. ed its ability to confer flexibility to tissue-engineered cartilage, and used it to engineer flexible cartilage in the shape and size of a human ear. METHODS: Auricular chondrocytes and perichondrium were isolated from swine
Ear Cartilage | ClipArt ETCSpecialized Connective Tissue 1 at Rosalind FranklinEar | Plastic Surgery KeyHistology - Connective tissue - StudyBlueENT: Tumors of external ear | notes

There are no studies in the literature, comparing the functional and anatomical successes of the use of fascial and perichondrial grafts in endoscopic type 1 tympanoplasties. To compare the anatomical and functional outcomes of grafting with the fascia of the temporalis muscle and with the perichondrium of the tragal cartilage in patients undergoing primary transcanal type 1 tympanoplasty with. meatus, ear canal) The formative elements of the external ear are composed of flexible cartilage and of bone, which are attached to the skin by their perichondrium and periosteum. ! Physiolog Technique consisted ofgiving injection of Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1, and subsequently performing ventral skin, ventral perichondrium, cartilage, and dorsal perichondrium excision, leaving behind only dorsal skin.The best rabbit ear keloid model was produced by this technique, which was intact even after follow up of one year.This technique has been named as 'MannanandHannan Technique. The ring graft is a modified cartilage-perichondrium composite graft comprising a peripheral, ring-shaped piece of cartilage attached to a transparent perichondrial sheet. It has the same advantages as cartilage-perichondrium composite grafts, perichondrial grafts and temporalis fascia grafts, but without their disadvantages per·i·chon·dri·um (pĕr′ĭ-kŏn′drē-əm) n. pl. per·i·chon·dri·a (-drē-ə) The fibrous membrane of connective tissue covering the surface of cartilage except at the endings of joints. [New Latin : peri- + Greek khondros, cartilage; see chondro-.] per′i·chon′dri·al (-drē-əl) adj. American Heritage® Dictionary of the English. Autotransplantation of monkey ear perichondrium-derived progenitor cells for cartilage reconstruction. Cell Transplant. 2016 Feb 15; Authors: Kagimoto S, Takebe T, Kobayashi S, Yabuki Y, Hori A, Hirotomi K, Mikami T, Uemura T, Maegawa J, Taniguchi H Abstract We recently developed a promising regenerative method based on the xenotransplantation of human cartilage progenitor ce..